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Environment and occupational health hazard evaluation

        How should we understand our work and living environments reasoningly? How should we identify and judge pollutants and their degrees of hazards? Our professional measurement and evaluation are useful for scientific and objective judgment and timely taking of correct measures for purpose of safe work and living environments.

        Environment and occupational health hazards

Hazard type Hazard  Harm for human body/environment Evaluation method
Occupational health hazards Physical factors Noise  Symptoms such as dizziness, tinnitus or even permanent hearing impairment in the case of long-time exposure to big noise Measurement 
Lighting and visibility Adverse impact on vision, including  vision fatigue or vision impairment, due to excessive or insufficient illuminance Measurement
Poor driving safety due to low visibility in days with rain, fog, haze, sandstorm, etc. Evaluation
Temperature  Adverse impact on circulatory system, digestive system, urinary system, nervous system and so on in the case of high-temperature operation Measurement
Vibration  Hand numbness, swelling, pain or sweating, hand and arm paint or even hand-arm vibration disease (occupational disease) due to long-time hand-transmitted vibration  Measurement
Air quality Symptoms such as frequent catching cold, group-occurring skin allergy, throat pain, respiratory tract drying, dizziness and easy fatigability due to poor indoor air quality Measurement
Slight worsening of symptoms (for susceptible population), significant worsening of symptoms, decline of exercise tolerance and serious symptoms (for heart disease patients and lung disease patients) due to outdoor air pollution Measurement
Radiation  Serious harm to human bodies or even quicker cancer cell growth due to radiation Measurement
Chemical factors Paint  Damage of brain cells due to long-time excessive use of poor paint Measurement
Insecticide Nerve paralysis and sensory nerve abnormality due to insecticides’ toxicity to the nervous system Evaluation
Laboratory chemicals See Procedure of Communication about Chemical Hazards. Evaluation
Coal gas Serious harm to human bodies due to acute toxicity as a result of hypoxia caused by combination with  hemoglobin Measurement
Natural gas Nerve dysfunction (represented in acute toxicity and chronic harm) due to anesthetic action Measurement
Gasoline and diesel Flammability and selective damage to the nervous systems of organisms Measurement
CO2 extinguishant Excitation effect for the respiratory center in the case of a small concentration, or even inhibiting or numbing effect in the case of a high concentration Measurement
C3H2F6 /C3HF7 extinguishant Discomfort or even, in the case of long-time exposure, a life risk in the case of a concentration higher than 10% Measurement
Absolute ethyl alcohol (alcohol) Diseases such as polyneuropathy, chronic gastritis, fatty liver, liver cirrhosis, cardiac damage and organic psychosis due to long-time excessive drinking because of its nature as a central nervous system depressant Measurement
SF6 Multiple toxic substances in the case of electric discharge, in spite of its colorless, odorless and basically non-toxic properties when it is pure Measurement
N2 Asphyxia due to ambient hypoxia due to decline of the oxygen concentration in the inhaled air as a result of an excessive high nitrogen concentration in the inhaled air Measurement
O2 Oxygen toxicity or even loss of vision when its concentration at the normal pressure is higher than 40% Measurement
C2H2 Low anesthesia effect or even, in the case of a high concentration, simple asphyxia Measurement
Biological hazards Nearly one hundred of diseases spread by bacteria and animals such as mosquitoes, insects and mice Evaluation
Man-machine effect An adverse impact on people’s health and work efficiency due to improper matching among humans, machines and environments Evaluation
Psychological factors A mental pressure due to cognitive differences for surroundings, competition, unemployment, family problems, information explosion, more conflicts, failure, desires, high expectations, unrealistical comparison, etc. Evaluation
Environmental hazards Light pollution Electro-photo dermatitis or electro-photo ophthalmia due to artificial UV light sources during electric welding, medical sterilization, etc. Measurement
Industrial waste Wasted wires, cables and electrical equipment Evaluation
Damage to the atmospheric ozone layer by refrigerant CFCs of air conditioners or foaming agent HCFCs in the insulating layer Evaluation
Cartridges of waste printers and duplicating machines Evaluation
Liver damage by the mercury leaking from waste batteries and entering soil or water, then crops and finally human bodies Evaluation
Insulating oil and vehicles’ waste engine oil: Damage to both human health and the environment  Evaluation
Lubricating oil: Dizziness, nausea, oil caused pneumonia or contact dermatitis due to acute inhalation Evaluation
Computers, cameras, video recorders and LCDs contain mercury, lead, cadmium and/or chromium compounds. Mercury mainly damages livers and brains; hexavalent chromium can result in bronchial asthma and DNA damage due to toxicity after being absorbed through cytomembrane.  Evaluation
Domestic waste Disease spreading due to improper handling of the massive germs generated by domestic waste Evaluation
Natural resource consumption Excessive consumption of natural resources such as land resources and water resources in the establishment and operation of power systems Evaluation
Emission/effluent  Domestic waste water, car exhaust, cooking fume, human excreta and heat generated by equipment Measurement
Other  Other hazards Other hazards Evaluation 

        Environment and occupational health hazards related test items

Hazard type Hazard  Test item Main test method/standard
Occupational health hazards Physical hazards Noise  Internal noise GBZ/T 189.8-2007: Measurement of physical agents in workplace - Part 8: Noise
Boundary noise GB 12348-2008: Emission standard for industrial enterprises noise at boundary
Lighting and visibility Natural lighting and artificial lighting GB/T 5700-2008: Measurement methods for lighting
Emergency evacuation lighting
Safety lighting
Standby lighting
Outdoor lighting 
Visibility  Guide to meteorological instruments and observation methods (6th Edition) – Chapter 9: Determination of visibility
Vibration  Indoor vibration  
GBZ/T 189.9-2007: Measurement of physical agents in workplace - Part 9: Vibration
Ambient vibration GB 10071-88: Measurement method of environmental vibration of urban area
Chemical hazards Air quality Indoor air quality Total volatile organic compounds Appendix C of Indoor air quality parameters (GB/T 18883-2002)
C6H6 GB 11737-89: Standard method for hygienic examination of benzene, toluene and xylene in air of residential areas - Gas chromatography
CH?O Phenol reagent spectrophotometry in Methods for determination of formaldehyde in air of public places (GB/T 18204.26-2000)
NH? Nessler’s reagent spectrophotometry in Methods for determination of formaldehyde in air of public places (GB/T 18204.25-2000)
Rn GB/T 16147-96: Scintillation flask method for measuring radon concentration in the air
CO2 GB/T 18204.24-2000: Methods for determination of carbon dioxide in air of public places
Temperature GB/T 18204.13-2000: Methods for determination of air temperature in public places
Humidity  GB/T 18204.14-2000: Methods for determination of air humidity in public places
Inhalable particulates GB T 17095-1997: Hygienic standard for inhalable particulate matter in indoor air
Fresh air volume Tracer gas method in Methods for determination of air change flow of indoor air in public places (GB/T 18204.18-2000)
Ventilation rate Tracer gas method in Method for measurement of infiltration rates of indoor air in public places (GB/T 18204.19-2000)
CH4  
H2  
CO GB-T 18204.23-2000: Methods for determination of carbon monoxide in air of public places
Combustible gases Gas chromatography in Determination of toxic substances in workplace air (2nd Edition)
Other toxic and harmful gases Gas chromatography in Determination of harmful substances in workplace air (2nd Edition)
Total bacterial count GB/T 18204.1-2000: Methods of microbiological examination for air in public places - Determination of aerobic bacterial count
Oxygen content Orsat gas analysis method in Monitoring and analytical method for ambient air and exhaust gas (4th edition) (revised and expanded edition)
CO2 Volumetric precipitation method in Methods for determination of carbon dioxide in air of public places (GB/T 18204.24-2000)
Other air compositions Gas chromatography in Determination of toxic substances in workplace air (2nd Edition)
Ambient air quality SO2 HJ/T 482-2009: Ambient air – Determination of sulfur dioxide – Formaldehyde absorbing – pararosaniline spectrophotometry 
Inhalable particulates HJ 618-2011: Determination of atmospheric articles PM10 and PM2.5 in ambient air by gravimetric method
NO2 HJ 479-2009: Ambient air-Determination of nitrogen oxides -N-(1-naphthyl) ethylene diamine dihydrochloride spectrophotometric method
Bad smell GB/T 14675-93: Air quality-Determination of odor-Triangle odor bag method
Air speed Digital anemometer method in Methods for determination of wind speed in public places (GB/T 18204.15-2000)
Temperature  Glass thermometer method in Methods for determination of air temperature in public places (GB/T 18204.13-2000)
Radiation  Electromagnetic radiation GBZ 2.2-2007: Occupational exposure limits for hazardous agents in the workplace – Part 2: Physical agents – Chapter 5: Occupational exposure limits for high frequency electromagnetic field; GB 8702-1988: Regulations for electromagnetic radiation protection 
Paint  C6H6 GBZ/T 160.42-2007: Determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in the air of workplace 
C7H8
C8H10
Insecticide Pesticide residue Evaluation 
Laboratory chemicals Chemical reagents
Coal gas CO GB-T 18204.23-2000: Methods for determination of carbon monoxide in air of public places
H2 GB 11737-89: Standard method for hygienic examination of benzene, toluene and xylene in air of residential areas - Gas chromatography
CH4 GB 11737-89: Standard method for hygienic examination of benzene, toluene and xylene in air of residential areas - Gas chromatography
Natural gas CH4 GB 11737-89: Standard method for hygienic examination of benzene, toluene and xylene in air of residential areas - Gas chromatography
Gasoline and diesel C4~C12 hydrocarbons GB 11737-89: Standard method for hygienic examination of benzene, toluene and xylene in air of residential areas - Gas chromatography
Extinguishant CO2 GB/T 18204.24-2000: Methods for determination of carbon dioxide in air of public places
C3H2F6 /C3HF7 extinguishant GB 11737-89: Standard method for hygienic examination of benzene, toluene and xylene in air of residential areas - Gas chromatography
Alcohol Absolute ethyl alcohol GB 11737-89: Standard method for hygienic examination of benzene, toluene and xylene in air of residential areas - Gas chromatography
SF6 SF6 Safety code of electric power industry - electric part of power plants and transformer substations  DL408-1991/U.S EPA320
N2 N2 Orsat gas analysis method in Monitoring and analytical method for ambient air and exhaust gas (4th edition) (revised and expanded edition)
O2 O2
C2H2 C2H2  
Biological hazards Evaluation 
Man-machine effect
Psychological factors (a Psychological factor questionnaire is necessary)
Environment hazards Light pollution The same as the part of “Lighting and visibility” among “Physical agents” GB/T 5700-2008: Measurement methods for lighting
Industrial waste Evaluation 
Domestic waste
Natural resource consumption
Emission/effluent Domestic sewage PH GB 6920-86: Water Quality — Determination of pH Value — Glass Electrode Method
Chromaticity  Dilution times method in Water quality-Determination of colority (GB 11903-89)
Suspended matters GB 11901-89: Water quality-Determination of suspended substance-Gravimetric method
Chemical oxygen demand GB 11914-89: Water quality-Determination of the chemical oxygen demand-Dichromate method
Biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days HJ 505-2009: Water quality – Determination of biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5) for dilution and seeding method
Animal and vegetable oils GB/T 16488-1996: Water quality- Determination of petroleum oils and animal and vegetable oils- Infrared spectrophotometry
Cooking fume Emission concentration Infrared spectrophotometry in Emission standard of cooking fume (GB 18483-2001)
Other hazards Domestic drinking water Total coliform GB/T5750.12-2006.2: Standard examination methods for drinking water - Microbiological parameters (multi-tube fermentation technique, filter membrane technique and enzyme substrate technique)
Total bacterial count GB/T5750.12-2006.1: Standard examination methods for drinking water - Microbiological parameters (plate count technique)
Fluorides  GB/T5750.5-2006. 3: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Inorganic non-metal parameters
Nitrate  GB/T5750.5-2006. 3: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Inorganic non-metal parameters (iron chromatography)
Turbidity  GB/T5750.4-2006. 2: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Sensory properties and physical parameters 
pH  GB/T5750.4-2006. 5: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Sensory properties and physical parameters 
Fe GB/T5750.6-2006 1.4: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Metal parameters 
Chlorides  GB/T5750.5-2006. 3: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Inorganic non-metal parameters
Total dissolved solids GB/T5750.4-2006. 8: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Sensory properties and physical parameters
Total hardness GB/T5750.4-2006 .7: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Sensory properties and physical parameters
CHCl3 GB/T5750.8-2006 .1: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Organic parameters
CCl4 GB/T5750.8-2006 .1: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Organic parameters
Oxygen consumption GB/T5750.7-2006. 1: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Organic parameters
Volatile phenols GB/T5750.4-2006. 9: Standard examination methods for drinking water – Sensory properties and physical parameters 
Cl? and free chlorine agent GB/T5750.11-2006. 1: Standard examination methods for drinking water –Disinfectants parameters
NH2Cl GB/T5750.11-2006. 3: Standard examination methods for drinking water –Disinfectants parameters
Pesticide residues and heavy metal residues in soil and plants Hg GB/T 17136-1997: Soil quality-Determination of total mercury-Cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry
As GB/T 17134-1997: Soil quality-Determination of total arsenic-Silver diethyldithiocarbamate spectrophotometry
Pb GB/T 17140-1997: Soil quality-Determination of lead, cadmium-KI-MIBK Extraction flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry
Cd GB/T 17140-1997: Soil quality-Determination of lead, cadmium-KI-MIBK Extraction flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry
T-Cr HJ 491-2009: Soil quality — Determination of total chromium — Flame atomic absorption spectrometry
Quality of chilled water and cooling water of air conditioners Turbidity  GB/T 12151-2005: Analysis of water used in boiler and cooling system-Determination of turbidity-Formazine turbidity
PH GB/T 6904-2008: Water used in industrial circulating cooling system and boiler - Determination of pH
Calcium hardness GB/T 6909-2008: 
Analysis of water used in boiler and cooling system - Determination of hardness
Methyl orange alkalinity GB/T 15451-2006: Industrial circulating cooling water – Determination of total and composite alkalinity
T-Fe GB/T 14427-2008: Analysis of water used in boiler and cooling system - Determination of iron
Sulfates  GB/T 6911-2007: Water for industrial circulating cooling system and boiler—Determination of sulfate
Chlorides  GB/T 15453-2008: Water for industrial circulating cooling system and boiler - Determination of chloride
Free chlorine GB/T 14424-2008: Industrial circulating cooling water-Determination of residual chlorine
Ammonia nitrogen HG T 2158-1991: Industrial circulating cooling water—Determination of ammonium-Distillation and titration method
Petroleum  HG/T 3527-2008: Industrial circulating cooling water-determination of mineral oil
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) GB/T 15456-2008: Industrial circulating cooling water - Determination of the chemical oxygen demand - Potassium permanganate method
Conductivity  GB/T 6908-2008: Analysis of boiler water and cooling water – Determination of conductivity
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